The concept of life cycle assessment (LCA) originated in the
late 1960’s when it became clear that the only sensible
way to examine industrial systems was to examine their performance,
starting with the extraction of raw materials from the earth and
tracing all operations until the final disposal of these materials
as wastes back into the earth (cradle to grave).
energy of building materials?
that is normally described as an 'environmental' problem could
be more accurately called an environmental symptom of a human